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Chemistry The magnetic properties of Gd(III) complexes depend primarily on the electronic properties of the central transition metal ion, as well as ligand field splitting. Cobalt(II) complexes of the type, have been studied in order to determine how the electronic structure affects the magnetic behavior. Changes to the local symmetry of the ligand field splits the energy levels of the d-electrons into two non-degenerate orbitals and with low and high spin, respectively. The energy of the electrons in the orbital decreases with increasing angular momentum and this lowering of energy has a stabilizing effect on the electron spin that can lead to an anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction in the triplet state. The orbital also has a spin orbit interaction with the ligand field that increases as the angular momentum of the orbital increases, which decreases the energy of the electron in this orbital and decreases the anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction, leading to a net ferromagnetic exchange interaction in the triplet state. The complexes and have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically. In the crystalline environment of, the unpaired electrons in the orbitals have both magnetic and non-magnetic interactions with their crystalline neighbors. For, the energy level of the orbitals are higher than for, leading to an anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction. The complexes and have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The unpaired electron of the orbital is more diffuse in the complex than the one in, which leads to an increased magnetic moment. The magnetism of is not strong enough to be useful for magnetic resonance imaging, but has been shown to have strong anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. The complexes and have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The crystal structure of leads to a non-zero orbital angular momentum of the unpaired electrons. This causes a reduction in magnetic moment of when compared to and. The magnetism of the Gd(III) complexes of thiosemicarbazone is primarily due to the diamagnetic properties of the. For magnetic moments are larger than for and the stability of the anti-ferromagnetic ordering is much greater. Synthesis and preparation Most Gd(III) complexes are prepared by heating and the desired ligand with the appropriate ligand field.